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There are two methods for Isopropanol manufacture from Propylene. The first method of Isopropanol manufacture is the newer method of direct hydration reaction. The older method of Isopropanol manufacture is a sulphonation reaction followed by hydrolysis.
The hydration reaction of Isopropanol manufacture can be either in the liquid or gas phase and is slightly exothermic. The general reaction of Isopropanol manufacture is as follows:-
CH3CHCH2 + H2O > CH3CHOHCH3
When in the liquid phase, high pressures are used of 80 to 100 atmospheres and temperatures of approximately 150 degrees C. A catalyst is used in the reaction made from sulphonated Polystyrene Cation Exchange Resin. This process can produce over 90% Isopropanol from a 75% Propylene conversion; an impotant bi--product from the reaction is Di-isopropyl Ether at approximately 5%.
Four main stages are involved in this process during the Isopropanol manufacture. These are:-
1. Propylene feed and recovery column
2. Reaction chamber
3. Aqueous Isopropanol Azeotropic distillation column
4. Drying column
Between stages one and two, a residual gas separation column is used to collect Propylene gas residues and return them to stage one.
By-products from the process are removed at the drying phase and transferred to an Isopropyl Ether separator which then passes to an Isopropyl Exther extractor. This by-product can be removed at this stage or returned to the process at the reaction column to produce more Iropronanol.
A Water supply is use at the reaction vessel from an external source plus water is also added to this supply by returning it from the distillation column when it is removed from Aqueous Isopropanol.
An alternative and older route is via sulphonation in a similar reaction to that used for Ethylene in the presence of Sulphuric Acid. However, this process is not as selective as the vapour phase method; reaction conditions are also milder than for Ethylene.
In this process, Sulphuric Acid reacts with Propylene to form Isopropyl Sulphate, which is hydrolyzed with steam to produce Sulphuric Acid and IPA. The crude IPA is then distilled to achieve the correct purity.
The direct hydration process (newer process) can be carried out in the gas phase over a Phosphoric Acid based fixed-bed catalyst, or in the liquid phase using a soluble tungsten catalyst.
For further information on Isopropanol uses, Isopropanol Labelling, Isporpoanol Packaging and Transporting Isopropanol, please refer to the relevant pages of this website.
http://www.isopropanol.co.uk/isopropanol-manufacture | Saved Friday, November 18th, 2011 - 5:43 AM